Performance: Design & Expectations


Providing a great user experience under a variety of performance situations means designing for a variety of expectations. Defining a great user experience should include performance budgets for the various pieces of the experience. Some basic examples include: Application startup, Image loading, and UI responsiveness.

Application Startup

First impressions are important, and startup time (page-load for web apps) is that first impression. There is a lot of information floating around that should convince you of the importance of a fast launch time. Still, we seem to cram more and more cruft into that part of the application. We initialize analytic libraries, load saved preferences, try to re-send failed or queued events and data, and maybe even send crash reports from previous sessions.

Create a startup time performance budget. How long should a person wait before being able to view and interact with real content? Once you set that limit, start moving less critical work out of the critical path. Queued events and data can remain queued a little while longer. Buffer new events before initializing heavy analytics libraries. Consider showing cached content, while downloading new content in the background.

Image Loading

Images are a big part of many applications. Avatars, photos and GIFs are everywhere. We want to display the images as fast as possible. Usually development happens in ideal situations: Best devices and best network speeds – the fast-path. If you’re measuring the real world performance characteristics of your application, you probably know that most of the people using the application don’t have the best devices or fast network speeds – the slow path.

Sometimes we fail to design for the slow-path. We assume it’s infrequent, or worse, we believe the fast-path behavior is correct for the product in any situation. People can just deal with the crummy experience. Remember your performance budget: how long should someone wait for an image to load?

Some common approaches to handling the slow-path:

  • Use server-side caching. This one is pretty obvious, but I have to mention it. Using a Content Delivery Network (CDN) means it takes less time to deliver images to the application because the images are “closer” to the application.
  • Use a more efficient file format. GIF is not known for being a lightweight format. Look into WebP and MP4 as low-bandwidth animated image alternatives that provide great quality.
  • Get better at picking JPEG quality levels. Etsy has a nice write-up on using SSIM (human vision estimation) to pick the lowest level without hurting perceived quality. Google has something called Butteraugli that does something similar.
  • Dynamically size images to fit the target rendering size. Don’t download large images only to reduce the size on the client. For less than excellent networking speeds, request images that are smaller than the target size and upscale them. You can save a lot of bandwidth and render the image quickly, keeping the application usable.
  • Aggressively cache images on the device. Never download the same image more than once. Cached images load quickly and reduce bandwidth usage. Yes, this might mean using 1GB or more for a cache, but if the space is available, it’s always worth it. Modern OSes will try to clear storage-based caches when running low on free space.
  • Consider Tap-to-Play interfaces to delay downloading large animated images until requested. Use a much smaller static image as a placeholder.

Some of these slow-path ideas might be so effective at saving bandwidth or improving image loading speed, that you make them options for the fast-path as well.

UI Responsiveness

Touch-based devices make unresponsive UIs very noticeable. Applications should maintain a responsive UI no matter what other activity is taking place. Use background threads to do the heavy lifting. Keep the UI thread free of any file I/O, networking and any other work that can be pushed to the background.

Remember to design for the slow-path when creating UI actions associated with network APIs. Don’t wait for the network response before changing the state of the UI. If the action fails, you can always say so and flip the state back. Delaying the state change makes the UI appear broken.

Smooth scrolling is another part of a responsive UI. iOS, Android and Web all have best practices for keeping high frame-rates while scrolling. There are also tools for profiling your rendering code.

Watch for situations where a design requirement (animation, layout, whatever) is causing the UI to become unresponsive. Find a way to fast-path/slow-path the requirement. If that’s not possible, get the requirement changed.

Design for Everyone

Never fall into the mindset of designing for only the latest hardware and fastest network speeds. You really need to factor the slow-path into your designs too. Yes, it’s more work and it’s probably not your ideal experience, but it’s far better than trying to force a fast-path design down a slow-path situation. That experience is usually horrible. You can do better!


Also published on Medium.

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